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Download internet explorer 12 for windows 10 64 bit.Internet Explorer 12 — CNET Download
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Internet Explorer 11 For Windows 10 64bit — CNET Download
Western Digital Zoned Storage: The Technology Of The Future Of SSDs
Western Digital, one of the largest developers and manufacturers of HDD and SSD, is doing everything possible to ensure that next-generation drives get rid of the «curses» of legacy technologies, becoming more productive and convenient both from the point of view of software developers and storage systems, and from the point of view of end-user perspective.
Western Digital has been experimenting with Zoned Block Devices (ZBD) technology for a long time: back in 2021, we talked about the development of the Zonefs file system, in which each zone on the drive is displayed as a separate area. And this summer, the zoning concept itself officially became part of the NVMe standard.
In conventional SSDs, data is written without taking into account the location in NAND blocks
Zoning has a number of advantages over the classic implementation of drives. First, recording parameters can be managed centrally, at the host processor or even application level. Secondly, the zones can have different speed characteristics. And finally, third, zoning reduces wear on NAND memory and, when implemented correctly, ensures that there are no speed drops, which is especially important for corporate storage systems.
Deleting a single file requires data movement, which slows down the drive and causes increased NAND wear
Initially, the concept of block storage was created for mechanical hard drives, where its logic corresponded to the physical principles of the drive. With the advent of solid-state drives, the technology was adapted for them as well — it turned out to be the easiest way to maintain compatibility. However, flash memory works in a completely different way than magnetic recording: in addition to write and read operations, it also requires erasing a block.
Zoning SSDs write data in an orderly fashion. No «write amplification», no garbage collection required
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We remind you that erasure in NAND memory cannot occur in an arbitrary way: the entire block is cleaned, and if part of the data stored in it is still needed, they must be transferred to another place before erasing. The process of clearing space for erasing NAND blocks is called «garbage collection». This process loads the SSD controller and often leads to the fact that the consistency of speed characteristics is not ensured. In addition, the extra erase-rewrite cycles do not benefit the flash memory at all, and it wears out faster.
As a result, a classic SSD is built with a fairly serious margin of safety: part of the flash memory is not used directly in it, but is used as a «replacement fund» to replace failing NAND cells. The volume of this fund can reach 20-30% of the total volume of NAND, which, of course, does not contribute to reducing the cost. A substantial part of the cost of modern SSDs is also DRAM, which is used to store translation tables and allows the drive to more or less maintain constant speed characteristics.
The transition to the concept of zoning allows us to solve both of the above problems: data in such drives is written in an orderly manner (within the zone, recording is carried out only sequentially), the write order is completely transparent, and it can be controlled even from the application side, which means that unnecessary erasures and overwrites can be avoided. Due to this, it is possible to reduce the replacement stock of NAND cells, and, therefore, to reduce the unit cost of data storage. Translation tables also take on a more compact form and the DRAM buffer can also be made smaller.
By aligning the zoning better with the NAND technology itself, Western Digital has achieved impressive results: a ZNS-enabled SSD can provide a «write amplification» of 1x because it does not require unnecessary erasing and rewriting NAND blocks. Therefore, constant write speed is guaranteed across the entire SSD capacity.
With zoning, the write speed to the drive is always at its maximum
The situation with the response time is also significantly improving: while for conventional SSDs it strongly depends on the ratio of reads to writes, then for a zoned SSD this parameter remains almost constant. In general, the latency can be reduced by 57%. The culmination of Western Digital’s zoning work is the latest Ultrastar DC ZN540 solid state drive.
Zoning allows the SSD to maintain constant latency across different read / write ratios
It is the world’s first enterprise SSD to take full advantage of zoning technology. It fully complies with the ZNS Command Set 1 specifications.0 and NVMe 1.3c. The drive uses a new highly reliable dual-port controller with an external PCI Express 3 interface.one. The basis of the novelty is a 96-layer 3D NAND TLC memory. The drive is made in a U form factor.2 and can be up to 8 TB.
Thanks to zoning, the new product is ideal for multi-user scenarios and scenarios with large amounts of streaming data. The company speaks of a four-fold superiority over traditional SSDs in speed and 2.5-fold in quality of service (QoS, constancy of speed characteristics and latency). Due to more efficient use of NAND and DRAM resources, the new product provides a lower cost of storage system ownership and a lower unit cost of information storage.
The write speed of the zoned SSD remains constant, and the response time is almost flat
Western Digital also published the test results of the new drive, comparing it with a comparable conventional SSD. As a rule, enterprise-type SSDs are designed for consistent performance, but the discrepancy between the principles of working with data at the file system and NAND levels leads to a logical result: only about 1 TB of data was written at the nominal speed, after which a regular SSD was forced to start garbage collection , and the write speed dropped sharply. Zoned DC ZN540 coped with the task without losing any speed at all.
While reading the disadvantages of a traditional SSD can be compensated for, there is no equal when writing to zoned drives
Similarly, the new product showed its advantages with an increase in the share of write operations in the load. The classic SSD almost doubled the response time, while the zoned model grew much slower. Thus, we can say with confidence that the situation with the predictability of behavior in zoned SSDs is much better than in classical models.
Deliveries of Western Digital DC ZN540 drives have already begun, however, so far in small batches. It is safe to say that the company will continue to develop this area. Especially in light of the growing popularity of QLC memory — the introduction of zoning will significantly increase the reliability and performance of such SSDs, which will make them more suitable for use in large storage systems and cloud complexes.
But it would be a mistake to say that zoning is only relevant for solid state drives. Of course, due to the peculiarities inherent in NAND memory, it shows itself best in SSDs, but there are also benefits for traditional hard drives.
SMR technology aligns well with zoning principles
We are talking about models with «tiled» recording (SMR), where the very principle of intersecting tracks requires sequential recording, and when erasing, the entire zone is deleted, not just one track. Such HDDs allow you to achieve large capacities at a relatively low price — the Ultrastar DC HC650 model, for example, has a volume of 20 TB. Among the first users of such hard drives is the very popular cloud file storage Dropbox.
New WD drives share a single software stack regardless of type (SSD or HDD / SMR)
The company continues to actively participate in software development, and ZonedStorage remains the official site of the zoning implementation project.io, where you can find documentation and a lot of other zoning information. In particular, information is available about Linux distributions that already support ZBD.
If you would like more information about Western Digital solutions, fill out the form above.